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Independent judgments of the reason

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Bagherpour Kashani: This is not the case that the reason always needs data; but reason itself, has independent judgment of the affairs. For example, Law of noncontradiction1, the law of excluded middle2, and coincidental oppositorum3 are the independent judgments of the reason. If rational arguments based on these axioms, the wise man does not mistake. Reason intuitively understands the good and bad things; for example, reason understands that the injustice is bad, no matter it is on the part of the Creator or the creature.

Dr. Seyyed Hadi Mousavi: One should place his reason as the criterion, but reason is in varying degrees in different humans. Do these differences cause differences to reach the truth?

  1. This means that is impossible for a thing to be and not to be at the same time, for example, Ali is here and Ali is not here now.
  2. This means that is impossible for a thing to exist and not exist at the same time, for example, Ali has no existence and Ali has no inexistence now.
  3. This means two actually counter reality (denial of each other) are impossible to be together at the same time and place, for example, leaves are completely black and at the same time white.

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